She played a pivotal role in rehabilitating refugees and victims of the violence associated with the Partition of India in the state of Tripura. British India consisted of 17 provinces and princely states. The provinces were given to India or Pakistan, in some cases in particular — Punjab and Bengal — after being partitioned.
The Moderates had made large number of people conscious of the evils of foreign domination and of the need for fostering patriotism.
They believed in purely constitutional methods and agitated for piecemeal reforms in the Indian administration system. They had imparted the necessary political training to Indian people. The moderates also succeeded to create democratic temper among the people.
But during these very years of the Congress, certain developments in India and abroad produced among the younger section of the nation, a group of people, who began to question the wisdom of the method of prayers and petitions followed by the moderates in order to achieve their political objectives.
They were called extremist or militant nationalists. Factors for the Rise of Extremism: Firstly, some of the Congress leaders, specially the younger element, were greatly disappointed with the attitude of the British Government towards their demand. The Indian Council Act of which was enacted as a sort of concession to the people of India did not concede anything substantial.
Even the moderates who had faith in the British sense of justice and fair play were greatly disillusioned. Accordingly the younger leaders felt that the policy of prayers and petitions would not lead them anywhere because this was interpreted by the British as a sign of weakness.
Therefore, they advocated direct action. Secondly, as a result of the socio-religious reform movements of the late nineteenth century, a large number of young Congress leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lai Lajpat Rai, B.
Pal were convinced of the glorious culture of India and wanted to revive the same instead of aping the western civilization. Thirdly, the misery and suffering caused by the famines of andand bubonic plague around the same time also greatly agitated people.
They were greatly dissatisfied with the measures taken by the Government to deal with the situation. The people felt that if there had been a national Government in the country, it would have taken appropriate measures to deal with the situation and their miseries would have been considerably reduced.
The famines were attributed to the anti-Indian economy policies of the British. Even Moderate leaders like R.
Naoroji, Ranade were disillusioned with the British sense of justice and wrote extensively on the ill-effect of British economic exploitation. The resentment of the people against the Government found outlet in the murder of Mr.
Rand, the pleague commissioner. The Government held the nationalist leaders like Balgangadhar Tilak and other responsible for murder and imprisoned them. Bal Gangadhar was even denied the right to make an appeal to the Privy Council as permissible under the existing rules.
All these greatly agitated the people. Fourthly, the ill-treatment meted out to Indians in foreign countries, especially South Africa, also gave fillip to the extremist movement. In the beginning of the present century the South African enacted a number of discriminatory Laws which imposed restrictions on travel, trade act.
The British Government did not exert any pressure on the South African Government to withdraw these measures nor did it take any retaliatory measures against the citizens of South Africa.
This convinced the Indians that they were being subjected to humiliating treatment because they were slave nation and the citizens of an independent country certainly get a better treatment. Fifthly, the partition of Bengal in also contributed to the growth of extremism.
Curzon divided the province of Bengal into two provinces western province dominated by the Hindus, and the Eastern province dominated by the Muslims. Though ostensibly Curzon took this step on the plea of administrative efficiency but his real purpose was to draw wedge between the Hindus and the Muslims to check the growing wave nationalism.
This was strongly resented by the Indians in general and the Bengali in particular. A number of meetings were organised in Bengal and at other places against the partition of Bengal. This was a clear sign of the growing strength of nationalism in India. The Indians were determined to get the partition cancelled by peaceful methods, if possible, and by violent and direct methods, if necessary.
In view of the agitation generated by the partition of Bengal, it has been contended by scholars that extremism and terrorism in India chiefly own their origin to the partition of Bengal. Sixthly, the imperialist policies followed by Lord Curzon during his viceroyalty from gave a further fillip to the extremist movement in India.
Lord Curzon was staunch advocate of an efficient administration and strong opponent of the Indian association with administration because he had no faith in the capacity of Indians to rule them. He therefore enacted a number of measures which evoked strong resentment from the Indians and helped the extremist leaders to exploit the situation.
The Indian Universities Act. If these methods could be used in western countries, why could the Indians also not resort to these methods to attain their goal? This feeling greatly helped in the rise of extremism.Trade Unions and Globalization A Caribbean Workers’ Education Guide Robert L. Morris No discussions on the growth and development of the trade union movement in the Caribbean should be disconnected from the economic The rise of nations and capitalism 3.
As Snehal Shingavi’s essay in ISR makes clear, the class war of India’s development has been of a very traditional type.
During the s and s, the vanguard of the Indian working class and its organizations were smashed: in on the rails and in in . Growth and Development of the Trade Union Movement The growth and development of.
he labour – movement, and for that part of the trade unions,in India, can be divided into following periods, each of them revealing different tendencies that mark it from others. India gained its independence in European powers in Africa: European nations carved up the continent of Africa I the late s (Scramble for Africa).
Africa was a continent made up mainly of colonies until after , when African peoples began to demand independence. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TRADEUNIONISM IN INDIA The rise of trade unions was a new development in the society.
In its long history through the ayes from a sound development of the trade union movement. Employers and the public should welcome its growth?5 The Commission had also realised the.
India is a country which had gained its independence more than 60 years ago (since ), also a country which is sited under the banner of developing country.
It is mentioned by Kulwant S Pawar, India is a country with approximately , new graduate engineers each year also with 20% of world's population which is under 25 .