Nature the universe or cosmos consists only of natural elements, that is, of spatiotemporal physical substance— mass — energy. Non-physical or quasi-physical substancesuch as informationideasvalueslogicmathematicsintellectand other emergent phenomenaeither supervene upon the physical or can be reduced to a physical account; Nature operates by the laws of physics and in principle, can be explained and understood by science and philosophy; The supernatural does not exist, i.
Clements "never overlay thy selfe with a heavy weapon, for nimblenesse of bodie, and nimblenesse of weapon are two chief helpes for thy advantage" - Joseph Swetnam, The Schoole of the Noble and Worthy Science of Defence Popular media, fantasy games, and uninformed historians frequently give the impression that these immense weapons were awkward, unwieldy and ponderously heavy.
The facts confirm an entirely different understanding. Identification - Definition of the Two-Handed Great Sword To understand what we are discussing it is important to first have a working definition. The respected work, Swords and Hilt Weapons, offers this description of the weapon: In the hands of the Swiss and German infantrymen it was lethal, and its use was considered as special skill, often meriting extra pay.
Fifteenth-century examples usually have an expanded cruciform hilt, sometimes with side rings on one or both sides of the quillon block. This was the form which remained dominant in Italy during the sixteenth century, but in Germany a more flamboyant form developed.
Two-handed swords typically have a generous ricasso to allow the blade to be safely gripped below the quillons and thus wielded more effectively at close quarters. Triangular or pointed projections, known as flukes, were added The renaissance essay example the base of the ricasso to defend the hand.
English ones were sometimes referred to as "slaughter-swords" after the German, Schlachterschwerter "battle swords".
While used similarly to longswords, and even employed in some duels, they were not identical in handling or performance.
No major historical teachings detailing fencing with these specific weapons are known. These weapons were used primarily for fighting among pike-squares where they would hack paths through knocking aside poles, possibly even lobbing the ends off opposing halberds and pikes then slashing and stabbing among the ranks.
Wielded by the largest and most impressive soldiers Doppelsoldners, who received double paythey were also used to guard banners and castle walls.
The Italian humanist historian Paulus Jovius writing in the early s also described the two-hand great sword as being used by Swiss soldiers to chop the shafts of pikes at the battle of Fornovo in Many of these weapons have compound-hilts with side-rings and enlarged cross-guards of up to 12 inches.
Most have small, pointed lugs or flanges protruding from their blades inches below their guard. These parrierhaken or "parrying hooks" act almost as a secondary guard for the ricasso to catch and bind other weapons or prevent them from sliding down into the hands. They make up for the weapon's slowness on the defence and can allow another blade to be momentarily trapped or bound up.
They can also be used to strike with. Certain wave or flame-bladed two-handed swords have come to be known by collectors as flamberges, although they are more appropriately known as flammards or flambards the German, Flammenschwert.
The wave-blade form is visually striking but really no more effective in its cutting than a straight one. There were also huge two-handed blades known as "bearing-swords" or "parade-swords" Paratschwertweighing up to 10 or even 15 pounds and which were intended only for carrying in ceremonial processions and parades.
Hans-Peter Hils in his dissertation on the work of the great 14th century master Johannes Liechtenauer noted that since the 19th century many arms museum collections typically feature immense parade or bearing greatswords as if they were actual combat weapons ignoring the fact they are not only blunt edged, but of impractical size and weight as well as poorly balanced for effective use.
Though never intended for actual fighting, examples of such ponderous specimens are still occasionally cited incorrectly as having been actual combat weapons.
One source tells us that among 16th century armies the adoption of the two-handers was very limited and in comparison with the pike or the halberd did not play a meaningful role. However it would become unusable, as soon as the opposing forces collided with one another, and there would be increased pressure from the back ranks onto the front ranks, which created a thick melee.
As one writer says of the weapon, "Among the smaller countries where mercenary bands were likely to developthe Low Countries, the Italian city states, and the free cities and states of the German landsthe Swiss became premier two-handed swordsmen for hire from the 14th century until well into the 16th century.
The two-handed sword and the multipurpose polearm, called the halberd, were familiar Swiss trademarks. The Swiss and Germans made their own two-handed swords. The Italians made a basic two-hander that they exported throughout Europe. Two-handed swordsmen were perimeter shock troops, trained to lay into approaching knights or infantry and break their stride.
By the end of the 15th century, however, the Swiss had turned almost exclusively to the to foot pike as their weapon of choice, becoming the premier pikemen of Europe. The two-handed sword was considered incompatible with the pike and was actually outlawed as a frontline weapon by many confederation members--though the Swiss kept making them.
The two-hander remained a popular weapon among many other European mercenaries, in Italy and particularly in Germany. Issue 4, p Answering the Weight Question - how much did the actual historic weapons really weigh?
Nothing answers the question of genuine weight better than sample evidence of actual historical specimens. Sword collector and author Dr. Lee Jones possesses a very fine specimen of a 16th century German two-handed great sword, that this author had the privilege of exercising outdoors with, had length in excess of five feet and a weight of 7.
Again, the piece's size and weight betrayed a functional and well-balanced weapon.Final Essay The Renaissance is considered "the rebirth" or "the early modern period." This period in history was a time of enlightenment, where some of the greatest poetry, medicine, discovery, art, and many other achievements were accomplished during this .
A practical explanation for the futility of especially heavy weapons is that they are slow. In physics terms, doubling the mass of a weapon can provide twice the strike energy, but doubling the velocity of a strike provides four times the energy.
Marsilio Ficino, one of the greatest figures of the Italian Renaissance, was born in Florence, on October 19, He died in October of He was a priest, a doctor and musician, but is best known for his work as a translator of classic works, author and philosopher.
The Renaissance Essay Sample. After centuries of progress in population growth, economic prosperity, spiritual and intellectual vigor, and political stability, the fortunes of Western Europe took a dramatic downturn in the fourteenth century.
Albrecht Dürer: The Genius with a Great Soul. Albrecht Dürer was not only the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance, but also a unique personality, his genius coexisting with a pure, noble character.
The Renaissance was a period in European history marked by a cultural flowering. The Renaissance is defined as the revival or rebirth of the arts. The home of the Renaissance was Italy, with its position of prominence on the Mediterranean Sea.