Black Death migration The plague disease, caused by Yersinia pestisis enzootic commonly present in populations of fleas carried by ground rodentsincluding marmotsin various areas including Central AsiaKurdistanWestern AsiaNorth India and Uganda. In the s, a large number of natural disasters and plagues led to widespread famine, starting inwith a deadly plague arriving soon after.
The total number of deaths attributable to this devastating pandemic was 75 million people.
The Black Death was characterized by painful swelling in the lymph nodes known as buboes so it was generally considered to be an outbreak of the bubonic plague. It was caused by the organism,Yersinia pestis which was carried about from the bodies of black rats by fleas.
Victims of the disease were covered with dark blotches due to damage to the underlying skin and tissue. This medical phenomenon known as acral necrosis or subdural hemorrhages gave rise to the term black death.
The term black also referred to glum or dreadful due to the devastating effect this disease had on society.
History records the Black Death as having begun in the fourteenth century in southern Russian near the Crimea. The disease progressed along the path of commerce and travel; trading ships arrived at ports with entire crews dead of the disease.
Pre-existing conditions of war and famine only exacerbated the spread of the disease during this era. Farming and trade patterns were disrupted by war, and adverse weather conditions added to the diminishing supply of grains -- wheat, barley, and oats. Populations already weakened by malnutrition were more susceptible to the disease.
The loss of laborers, due to famine and sickness, negatively affected economy which led to poverty and crime. The Black Death — Manifestations of the epidemic The Black Death had three manifestations -- bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, and septicaemic plague.
The bubonic plague had a thirty to seventy-five percent mortality rate. This manifestation of the disease was characterized by the characteristic swelling of lymph nodes buboes along the neck, armpits, and groin. These symptoms were accompanied by fever, chills, joint and headaches, malaise, and nausea.
The pneumonic plague was the second most common form of the disease; this manifestation was transmitted from person to person, an airborne infection.
The symptoms included blood-tinged sputum which became increasingly more free-flowing as the disease progressed. This form of the disease had a ninety to ninety-five percent mortality rate. The Black Death had a third manifestation know as septicaemic plague. This form of the disease had an almost one hundred percent mortality rate.
Septicaemic plague was characterized by deep, purple discolorations of the skin and extremely high fevers. This form of the disease was quite rare. Survivors of the disease had horror stories to tell of life and environment during the plague years. The air was full of the horrific smell of sick, dead and rotting bodies.
Quarantines were set up on land to keep infected people out of the city. Quarantine is a word derived from the Italian word for forty; forty being the number of days thought necessary for a virulent disease to run its course.
Facilities were set up to allow travelers to wait until the forty days were complete; however, black rats and fleas could not be kept out by these methods so disease continued to be spread. This depopulation had a variety of effects. The European peasant class benefited on the one hand; they were in greater demand due to shortage of labor and there were large areas of unattended fertile land which became available to them.
Landlords offered incentives to the peasants combining freedom and increased wages; many historians hold that these were the first stirrings of capitalism. Governments, ill prepared for the scope of the tragedy instituted measures such as price controls and prohibition of certain food items. This was largely ineffective.
The influence of the Church was greatly diminished during this period. Many became disillusioned with the Church for its inability to halt the relentless progression of the disease. Faith in God was sorely tested.In the Late Middle Ages (–) Europe experienced the most deadly disease outbreak in history when the Black Death, the infamous pandemic of bubonic plague, hit in , killing a third of the European human barnweddingvt.comms: Fever, headaches, vomiting, swollen lymph nodes.
The Black Death Essay Examples. 84 total results. The History and Impact of the Use of Biological Weapons, The Black Death. words. 1 page. An Overview of the Black Death Known as Bubonic Plague in the History of Mankind.
words. The Background of the Infamous Bubonic Plaque (Black Death) words. 1 page.
Black Death And The Black Plague Words | 5 Pages. The Black Death, also known as the Black Plague, was one of the most deadliest diseases of all time. This disease came to Europe around C.E, by merchants from East Asia. The Black Plague then spread all across Europe, and killed over 25,, people.
The bubonic plague is caused by a bacterium called Yersinia pestis and is characterized by chills, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and the formation of black boils in the armpits, neck, and groin. In the Late Middle Ages (–) Europe experienced the most deadly disease outbreak in history when the Black Death, the infamous pandemic of bubonic plague, hit Causes: Yersinia pestis spread by fleas.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from to