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Substituting the definition of the roll resistance moment in the equation above, we have: Solving for and dividing by we obtain the roll sensitivity to lateral Text weight paper of the car, i.

If we isolate the roll angle from the equation above, we can use it to calculate the moments from roll resistance moment and sprung CG side shift for a single axle. In a single axle, the roll resistance moment will be the roll angle multiplied by the roll stiffness of the axle analysed.

Note that this component resists only roll angle, and the entire sprung mass is used here, as this is how we obtained the expression for roll angle.

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The same will not be true for the weight shift component, because the axle will only support the fraction of the sprung weight distributed to it.

The weight shift component for a single axle will be: Substituting roll angle on the expression above, we have: The total moment from roll angle on a single axle will then be: The lateral load Text weight paper from this moment is obtained by dividing this by the axle track width, t: Lateral Load Transfer as a Setup Tool UK2 Group The three components of lateral load transfer should be added in order to obtain the total lateral load transfer on an axle: The expression above can be utilized to calculate the load transfer on each axle, which can then be used to improve handling.

Now that we have quantified lateral load transfer on an axle, we can start to analyse how the individual components interact. For you to get meaningful results from the equation above, you need to use consistent units.

You already know from steady-state pair analysis and from the discussion on tyre load sensitivity that lateral load transfer will decrease the lateral force capability of the axle.

If that is the case in the front axle, the car will understeer, if it is in the rear axle, it will oversteer. Kinematic Load Transfer Component The first one to analyse is the kinematic or direct lateral force load transfer component.

From the general lateral load transfer equation, we know that this component is changed by modifications to either the weight distribution of the car, or the roll centres height. Weight distribution can be controlled through positioning of ballast in the car.

Changing weight distribution will obviously alter CG longitudinal location, and that might have undesirable effects on many other aspects of the car. For example, if the weight is shifted forward, the front tyres may be overloaded under heavy braking, while the rear tyres may lose most of their vertical load, reducing the brake capability of the car.

The second option to alter load transfer from direct lateral force component is to change roll centre heights. This is a complex measure because it requires changes in suspension geometry, and it has influence on all geometry-related parameters, such as camber and toe gain, anti-pitch features and so on.

In some categories, the rear suspension is mounted on the gearbox, for example, Formula 3, shown in figure 5. Here the pickup points are highlighted for better comprehension. Figure 6 shows the CAD design of a similar gearbox, highlighting the different options for installing pickup points.

As we move up to higher categories, the engineering gets more complex. Figure 7 shows the gearbox from Mercedes W05, Formula One champion. Here the gearbox has a removable carbon fibre structural outer sleeve, allowing changes in the design of the rear suspension without having to re-test the rear of the car for crashworthiness.

Rear Suspension of a Dallara F A quick look at the lateral load transfer equation might lead you to think that lateral load transfer will increase with increasing roll centre heights because of the direct relation in the equation. The fact is, by increasing the roll centre height in one axle, you are increasing lateral load transfer from the direct lateral force component, while at the same time you are decreasing lateral load transfer from roll angle component.

Bear in mind that the roll moment arm is the perpendicular distance between the CG of the sprung mass and the roll axis. The overall effect will depend upon roll centre heights and roll stiffnesses, and a definitive conclusion will require a deeper analysis. One thing we can tell without any deep analysis is that increasing the roll centre height in one axle decreases the lateral weight transfer on the opposite axle, everything else kept constant.

This happens because raising the roll centre in any axle will approximate the roll axis to the sprung weight CG. This will decrease roll angle component, but since the roll centre height of the opposite axle will not be raised, the direct lateral force component will not increase and the overall effect will be a reduction in weight transfer on that axle.

Figure 9 shows a contour plot of lateral weight transfer sensitivity lateral weight transfer divided by lateral acceleration on both axles of an open wheel single-seater.

To obtain these, I created a MATLAB routine to calculate the total lateral weight transfer from our previous discussion, keeping the front and rear roll stiffnesses equal and constant while varying front and rear roll centre heights.

The input data were based on the manuals from the manufacturer of an important formula category.

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Lateral weight transfer sensitivity to roll centre heights. By analysing Figure 9 you can see that lateral load transfer is very sensitive to changes in roll centre height. For example, if you investigate what would happen to the weight transfer in both axles if you held rear roll centre height constant at 30 mm while increasing the front roll centre height, you would see opposite effects happening on front and rear tracks weight transfer would decrease in the rear axle while increasing in the front.

Now do the same, but picking a front roll centre height and imagining a vertical line instead. As you see, when we increase front roll centre height, the lateral weight transfer decreases on the rear axle while increasing on the front.Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses.

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