Alain Verbeke Multinational enterprises MNEs are the key drivers of globalization, as they foster increased economic interdependence among national markets. Yet, data on the activities of the largest MNEs reveal that very few are successful globally. For of the firms for which geographic sales data are available, an average of This means that many of the world's largest firms are not global but regionally based, in terms of breadth and depth of market coverage.
Firstly, with regard to building research capacity in the public sector, there are two aspects to be considered. This includes investments in long-term research projects in specific areas, as is the case with national laboratories, academies of science, etc.
These generate outputs such as academic publications, patents, etc. Public research institutes are also necessary to provide technical services for testing and as a consultancy service to firms as part of the infrastructure for metrology, standards, testing and quality control.
On the other hand, there are demand-driven public institutes which actively work in particular sectors or clusters, whose primary purpose is to develop specific innovations to meet the need of a sector or group of firms.
Specific government actions and strategies should follow from an intelligence gathering and technology foresight exercise in continuous dialogue with MNE subsidiaries. This is a rare role for an investment promotion agency and a clear manifestation of how FDI policies and innovation policies are becoming more closely interconnected.
Secondly, upgrading in corporate value chains involves improving human resources capabilities in line with demand. Innovation requires not only engineers and scientists, but rather a broad range of qualifications, including technicians, administrative staff and skilled workers.
It is important that tertiary education institutions focus on all of these different levels, and that programmes are developed in the appropriate industries and specialisations for which demand exists, in addition to generic subject areas.
For example, in Singapore the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Economic Development Board and the Council for Professional and Technical Education work closely together to monitor future skills needs, drawing on inputs from foreign and local investors as well as from education and training institutions.
This information is matched against national policy objectives and used to build targets for various components of universities, polytechnic schools and the Institute for Technical Education UNCTAD These include building up educational skills of teachers, trainers and university lecturers, in addition to those needed to run basic infrastructure projects such as electrical power generation, construction, and the like.
More generic skills such as accounting, actuarial sciences, management, etc. First, there are specific on-the-job training programmes to develop skills in particular areas for existing employees.
A common policy is to offer FDI subsidies tied in to the foreign investor providing some level of specialised training to potential employees, which are co-financed by the government. Second, MNEs sometimes seek specialist training programmes in institutions of higher learning to promote the proper training of potential employees, but this is largely the initiative of the firms in question, and is a model that is only viable for large MNEs which have special needs, and can afford to do so Chobanova In some countries, the government requires that every firm provides a certain number of internships in technical positions as part of the educational curriculum of technical schools.
This raises the quality of educational institutions and at the same time constitutes a mechanism for the firm to identify young potential employees. For example, the U. CATT's services are provided through state tax dollars at minimal or no cost to the qualifying client.
CATT specializes in custom-designed, short- and long-term, company-specific training for industries seeking to locate or expand in South Carolina.
It also provides recruiting, assessment, management and implementation services to customers who are creating new jobs. Training may be delivered through pre-employment or on the job activities dependent on the time frames and individual needs of the customer6.
Providing subsidies and tax incentives? The cost of participating in this competition might be prohibitive for the NMS. Indeed, a recent study by Harris et al.
Instead, we advocate for a cautious, selective and flexible use of subsidies, linking them to after-care services and MNE-embedding policies.
But subsidies should always be offered cautiously, after considering very carefully what the potential spillovers and linkages will be, and how these can be converted to actual benefits.
In addition, EU cohesion 6 http: Other policy options EU law supersedes national regulatory frameworks. Among other things, accepting the acquis communautaire implies that competition policy and other forms of regulation are determined at the EU level and, likewise, that discrimination between domestic and foreign firms is no longer possible.
Apart from the fact that it contravenes EU competition policy as well as WTO rules they are in effect a performance requirementChina has the added advantage of its large market size to use as a bargaining tool.
The intellectual property IP regime is another policy area constrained by EU membership but available to third countries. However, there still are some possibilities for national policy intervention. For example, since the s, Germany has introduced strict environment protection regulations for households and firms which increased demand for environmental technologies and services, stimulating innovation in these areas.
The global crises that started in has added impetus to the restructuring of MNE operations in the EU, and in and the NMS have been strongly affected by downsizing and job cuts Kalotay and Filippov The risk of downgrading and subsequent specialization in the lower value adding segments of corporate value chains has turned into a critical concern for the NMS.
The proper role for governments of the NMS in this context is a subject of much debate. We have recommended a coordinated, flexible and systemic approach, focussed on subsidiary development and linkage facilitation.
We have discussed a set of policy 7 http: However, our suggestions are to be taken as illustrative only, since it was beyond the scope of this paper to cover all possibilities.
Moreover, it should be stressed that each individual country would require a different mix of policies depending on its technological and institutional profile.London and Hart (), Ramamurti (), and Ramamurti and Singh () present frameworks to deal with strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in emerging markets.
Here, we build on Khanna and Palepu's (, ) institutional voids framework, which provides a sound conceptual anchor for emerging markets. Emerging Markets. Emerging markets can be defined as “low-income, rapid-growth countries using economic liberalization as their primary engine of growth” (Hoskisson et.
al., , p).Although the landscape of global competition is dominated by multinational firms from developed countries, many companies from emerging markets have joined the global competition from the s onwards. Traditional Versus Decentralized Innovation Strategies of Multinational Enterprises - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
This study examines the cross-border acquisition strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) from the main emerging countries, i.e. China and India. Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are the key drivers of globalization, as they foster increased economic interdependence among national markets.
Multinational enterprises, risk management, and the Feb 7, - As international business scholars, we spend a great deal of time focusing on much of the contemporary literature, peace is defined as the Multinational Enterprises and the Sustainable.