Michel Aoun Image copyright Getty Images Michel Aoun was elected by parliament in Octoberending a political stalemate which had left the country without a head of state since May He was army commander-in-chief from until and was appointed prime minister of the interim military government in He launched an unsuccessful "liberation war" against the presence of Syrian forces in and fled to France in When Syrian troops left inhe returned to form an alliance with pro-Syrian parties.
June - September http: This policy rests on the assumption that the departure of Syrian, PLO, and Israeli soldiers will solve most of Lebanon's problems by bringing peace to the Political and religious problems in lebanon, by making reunification possible, and by promoting economic reconstruction.
The withdrawal of foreign troops, it is also thought, will serve U. Two serious flaws, however, mar this reasoning: First, all foreign troops are not on the point of leaving, and second, even if they did leave, Lebanon's fundamental problems would remain unchanged.
All troops in Lebanon are not ready to withdraw for the simple reason that none of the local actors, foreign or Lebanese, considers a complete withdrawal in its interest. Syrian control of the Bekaa Valley and northern Lebanon guarantees Damascus continued influence in the country and allows the Syrian government to press claims to Lebanese territory.
The PLO has everything to lose and nothing to gain by evacuating to remote parts of the Arab world, far from Israel, far from the bulk of the Palestinian refugees, and far from the news media. Israel has the least to gain by staying in Lebanon. But barring heavy U. Israel needs tangible results to justify its "Operation Peace for Galilee" campaign: To settle for less would undermine the rationale for the entire Lebanon incursion.
Many of Lebanon's political and religious factions dread a quick withdrawal, for that would force them to take up arms against their rivals. The Phalange, Amal, Mourabitoun, Druse, and the other militias are ill-prepared to enter into another round of fighting; most of them would prefer to regroup their forces and prepare for the longer term.
For related reasons, the Lebanese central authority also fears a withdrawal. The government currently controls only about one per cent of Lebanon—part of the city of Beirut. Were foreign troops suddenly to depart, warlords and local chiefs would take their place, not the weak and demoralized Lebanese army.
The multi-national forces could not fill the void in the absence of two highly unlikely changes: Thus, its statements to the contrary, the Lebanese government has been in no hurry for Syrians and Israelis to evacuate. It has been better off facing foreign armies, which international pressure will eventually compel to leave, than potentially uncontrollable local militias.
Israel understands this and occasionally threatens to pull out without warning, leaving Lebanon in the lurch. Even were the United States able to negotiate a total foreign troop pullout, peace would not be at hand.
Not a gentle land before foreigners invaded in the s, Lebanon will not become one upon their departure. Lebanon was a country torn by enmities among the native populations long before foreign troops arrived.
In fact, the fighting among the Lebanese themselves created the opportunity for PLO, Syrian, and Israeli intervention. This internal hostility caused the civil war, produced the power vacuum that was filled by foreign forces, and continues to prevent reconciliation.
This animosity would remain even if all foreign forces vanished completely. The current preoccupation with the foreign military presence in Lebanon seeks to treat the symptoms of Lebanon's disintegration rather than its domestic causes.
Until the political hatreds that prevail in Lebanon are confronted, the civil war will continue. This enmity, which dominates Lebanese life, must be understood and appreciated by anyone concerned with the future of the country. The National Pact While Westerners usually stress the ideological nature of the civil war in Lebanon—dubbing one side conservative, the other progressive—the Lebanese themselves see the war in more traditional terms as a struggle for power among religious communities.
Saeb Salam, a prominent Lebanese politician for the past 55 years, recently summarized this view, writing: In Lebanon there are only Christians and Muslims.
The Christians have long struggled to stave off Moslem rule, and the Moslems, with equal persistence, have sought to subjugate them. The problem dates to the early centuries of Islam, when Christians known as Maronites the followers of Saint Maron, a 5th century monk fled the fertile plains of Syria where Moslems ruled and took refuge in the mountains.
For hundreds of years, they fended off would-be Moslem conquerors and retained their autonomy. At the time of the Crusades in the 12th century, the Maronites recognized the pope as their spiritual leader and established close cultural relations with France.
These links eventually brought many benefits, including Western education, trade, and the support of powerful patrons.What are the most serious social issues that Lebanon is facing? Update Cancel.
ad by Segment. Standardize data collection to drive trust and use of data. The country is also facing other problems, while attempting to recover from the Second Lebanon War, and .
This unsettled or confused identity was a major hindrance to the development of a normal Lebanese state and divided the Lebanese polity on most political issues, including the necessity of ending the mandate, along sharp religious lines.
Aug 25, · Main problems >>>> economy/corruption, political system (sectarianism), relations with Syria, Israeli border.
These 4 need to be dealt with utmost priority. For all 4 are the cause of instability in Lebanon and are obstructing us from progressing forward.
Under the terms of an agreement known as the National Pact between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, the president of the country must be a Maronite, the Prime Minister must be a Sunnite, and the Speaker of Parliament must be a Shiite.
A Country in Crisis? Challenges Facing Lebanon’s New Government Published December 16, can use Hezbollah to cause significant problems for Lebanon if Aoun and Hariri’s government reorients toward Riyadh. Jacob holds a B.A. in philosophy and political science from Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas.
Share this: Email; Print;. ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT SITUATION IN LEBANON CANVAS, September SITUATION, PILLARS OF SUPPORT AND POSSIBLE OUTCOME.
2 tember is representative of the many problems Lebanon in currently facing. I SITUATION INTRODUCTION. 3 CANVAS ameliorated the conditions concerning political equality of the religious groups, the Muslim.