Most people could easily name some differences between the Progressive formerly 'Reform' and Orthodox Judaism. Progressive Judaism allows mixed seating and female rabbis. Orthodox Judaism has separate seating of men and women and only male rabbis. Orthodox Judaism maintains that a Jew should keep kosher and not drive on Shabbat.
It is a by-product of my work on Jewish variants Jewish immigrants from the Pale of Settlement. The first sections explain a few technical details about the data. It is followed by the lists of most common Jewish and non-Jewish names and a few comments. First Name or Family Name? Today, one would normally think that knowing the family name would be more informative than knowing the first name, in trying to guess whether a person is Jewish or not.
Indeed, some first names sound more likely to be Jewish than others, such as Rachel or Rebecca for females, and Abraham and Isaac for males. Other names are still quite definitely non-Jewish.
But overall, first names normally do not tell us that much. Before crossing the Atlantic, Jews who lived in the Pale of Settlement had remarkably different distributions of both first names and family names. In fact, I found that the first names made a better indicator of Jewish ethnicity. But before following the requirement to know from where you came, I have to answer what may be the most existential question of all: I will be explaining how I do that in more details elsewherebut the important things to keep in mind are the following: Identification of Jewish variants on Ship Manifests Since aboutJews begun to be identified on the ship manifests submitted by the shipping companies to the U.
But not all Jewish passengers were identified as Jews. Some ships did not identify Jews at all, even when there were Jews aboard Most ships identified Jews, and did that very accurately Some ships identified Jews, but did that poorly Even when identification was poor, very few non-Jews were mistakenly misclassified or later coded on the computer file as Jews In short, among immigrants from the Russian Empire afterexcluding ships that did not identify Jews at all, approximately percent of Jews and 0.
This leaves many unclassified Jews — some of them came aboard ships that did not bother to identify Jews at all; others were aboard ships that had worked out a poor classification; and a few slipped through the net for various other reasons. The greater was the proportion of immigrants carrying a certain name that were identified as Jews, the more Jewish this name was.
Sample Definition The sample includes all passengers who passed through Ellis Island, were coded onto the file as coming from the Russian Empire, and that the ship in which they came had reported at least one Jew aboard. In all,immigrants aboard those ships were tagged as Jews andwere not.
Almost all passengers in this sample have arrived between the years Top Jewish First Names: Males The table above shows the most common first name among Jewish males.
The columns report the following statistics: Fraction of identified Jews that were carrying the name Cum: Note that each name is in fact a particular variant of a name, and so we see that Abraham, a different variant of the same name, appears again as the ninth most common name.
Probably the most striking thing to note is how common were common names. The top 20 names covered more than 30 percent of Jewish males!
As shown below, that was far from being the case for last names. The common repetitions of the same basic names in different variants make this even more striking: Another noticeable feature is that most of these top names were given exclusively to Jews.
Consider names such as Jankel and Moische. Within the sample, which includes only ships that had identified at least one Jew, 94 percent of passengers carrying these names were identified as Jewish. However, it is absolutely certain that every single person who carried such a name was Jewish.
How do I know it? Well, I just know it… Other uniquely Jewish names show the same pattern — approximately percent of persons carrying them were not identified as Jews. It seems reasonable to deduce that this was the lower bound of the rate of false-negative error, and that any Jew in the sample had at least this likelihood not to be identified as Jewish.
This means that when a name is over 90 percent Jewish within ships that identified at least a single Jew, it should be read as an exclusively, or almost exclusively Jewish name.
Keeping that in mind, note that most of the names on the list are around 90 percent Jewish and above. This means that the most common Jewish names were almost perfectly Jewish. It could have been the case that distinguishable Jewish names were not too common, and that most Jews opted for relatively more neutral names.However, Conservative Judaism follows a more lenient halachah determined by a committee of modern rabbis who have studied and interpreted the texts and laws for the present day.
Progressive Judaism views halachah as a guideline rather than Divine Law, thus Progressive Jewish observance of halachah is a choice rather than an obligation.
Jun 19, · Jewish Variants-Yr 11 Judaism RDS. SOR Preliminary course. Yiddish variants and diminutives of proper names (Jankel, As with the first names, the most common Jewish names are overwhelmingly Jewish, around percent, and as discussed above, given the inaccuracies in the data this actually means almost percent.
However, Conservative Judaism follows a more lenient halachah determined by a committee of modern rabbis who have studied and interpreted the texts and laws for the present day. Progressive Judaism views halachah as a guideline rather than Divine Law, thus Progressive Jewish observance of halachah is a choice rather than an obligation.
The three major variants or streams of Judaism are Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism (often called ‘Liberal’ or ‘Progressive’). The Australian Jewish community is a united but pluralistic community, which includes groups and sub-groups from all of the major streams.
Dec 01, · Regarding the Jewish population, a recent study identified 30 POR coding and flanking region variants in AJ and Moroccan Jewish cohorts. Six of these variants were novel (Table 1), suggesting they may be unique to these Jewish populations [ 42 ].